On Tajwid – II

Please describe, where in the books of fiqh is it written, that it is farđ áyn2  to recite the Qur’ān with (minimum) tajwīd such that every letter is pronounced distinctly.  If it is indeed true, then in which book is it present and in which place in that book.  If you can recall a hadith at the moment in this regard, please include it in your answer.

It is clearly written in all [relevant] books that if a letter is replaced with another in recitation, it invalidates prayer, if:

it is due to inability [this is unclear – due to inability or not due to inability?], according to the correct and relied upon opinion (madh’hab)

– it is by mistake and the meaning is distorted, according to our imams

– it is by mistake and if such a word is not found in the Qur’an, according to Imam Abu Yusuf

It is impossible to avoid mistakes unless one learns it (from a qualified reciter.)  It is farđ áyn to protect oneself from such things that cause one’s prayer to be invalid.  Allāh táālā has said: ‘do not cause your deeds to be invalidated.3

In Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah it is written:

idh wājibun álayhimu muĥattamu
qabla al-shurūýi awwalan an yálamu
makhārij al-ĥurūfi wa’s şifāti
li yanţiqū bi afşaĥi’l lughāti

It is obligatory and essential
Before starting to recite the Qur’ān, to know
The articulation of letters and their attributes
So that one can properly pronounce the most eloquent of all languages

Allāh táālā knows best.


1. Query by Muhammad Miyan of Bareilly

2. Obligatory for everybody

3. Sūrah Muĥammad, v.33

4. In other version li-yalfižū instead of li-yanţiqū

Fatawa Ridawiyyah: 6/339
Fatwā #506