On Tajwid – I


Zayd says the following:

“It is necessary to learn the makharij2 and it is obligatory3 to pronounce [the Qur’ān in recitation] properly.  However, if one cannot pronounce properly in spite of trying very hard [to learn], they will then have a valid excuse.  If a person does not know about the makhraj absolutely or that he knows about them, but he does not pronounce accordingly, then,  his namaz/salat is invalid.

If most Muslims omit an obligatory action or commit a forbidden action, it doesn’t make it permissible [to omit or commit] just because many of them have omitted or committed it.

First of all, [many] Muslims do not pray at all.  And those who pray are not regular in their prayer.  99% or approximately as many do not abstain from backbiting.”

Are Zayd’s aforementioned comments correct?


All of Zayd’s comments above are correct except the words: “şalāt is invalid if makharij are not known.” It is not necessary to know about the makharij; it is only necessary to pronounce the letters properly.  There are many people who cannot describe the makharij but they can recite properly and they have learnt by only hearing (from reciters) and practicing the same.  Even an illiterate Urdu speaker can pronounce the letters of his language correctly but cannot describe the makhraj.

Allāh táālā knows best.


1. Query sent by Amjad Álī Khān by way of Maulavi Shafīý Aĥmed, from Khanuda Post, Khana Khas, Hoshiarpur District; 12th Jumādā al-Akhīrah 1336AH.

2. makhraj; pl. makhārij: the position(s) along the vocal appartus from which a letter is uttered.

3. It is obligatory to learn it such that one’s prayer at least is valid.

Fatawa Ridawiyyah: 6/339
Fatwā #505