Jadd al-Mumtar

Jadd al-Mumtār álā Radd al-Muĥtār
Sustenance for the Forager 1
Alahazrat’s marginalia on Radd al-Muĥtār2 in Arabic in five volumes.

 

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1. It is a characterstic of Alahazrat’s naming scheme that he chooses homonyms often. This title can have two pronunciations and each can have a number of meanings:
a) Jadd al-Mumtār: The Sustenance of the Seeker; where jadd means Fortune, Sustenance [ĥužwah, rizq, ghinā – Tāj al-Árūs] mumtār means, a person who goes out in search of food, sustenance; a forager. [mayr: to go out in search of sustenance – Tāj al-Árūs.]
b) Jidd al-Mumtār: Hastening the Seeker; where jidd means ‘to hasten,’ ‘effort’ and also ‘research’. Thus, Jidd al-Mumtār can have two meanings: ‘Hastening the Forager’ or a self-deprecating: ‘Findings of a Forager,’ or ‘Effort of a Seeker.’ [jidd: ájalah; al-ijtihādu fi’l amr; al-taĥqīq – Tāj al-Árūs ]

2. Imām Ibn Áābidīn’s magnum opus which is universally acknowledged as an authoritative reference of the Ĥanafī madh’hab.

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Fatawa ar-Ridawiyyah

Al-Átāyā an-Nabawiyyah fi’l Fatāwā ar-Riđawiyyah
Bestowal of Prophetic Blessings in Raza’s Rulings

A major fatāwā collection of rulings in Urdu, Arabic and Persian; known as Fatāwā e Razawiyyah in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. This collection comprises of fatāwā of only fifteen years, as many previous fatāwā were lost as they were not copied before dispatch. Alahazrat himself organised it and even compiled extensive indexes, a practice uncommon in that age 110. Indeed, his pioneering efforts in indexing have remained largely unnoticed; the three separate indexes he made for his Fatāwā speak volumes about his creativity and initiative.1

Discussing indexes, Alahazrat says in the preface of the first volume:

This volume ends with the topic of tayammum. Initially, I thought of dividing the fatāwā in 12 volumes, and each volume containing approximately 800 pages; and the first volume to contain the complete chapter on matters of purity. But, even after 850 pages, only the topics until tayammum could be covered. Hence, it was decided to close this volume here. At the outset, this volume contains only 114 fatāwā and 28 monographs. Yet, praise be to Allāh táālā, there are numerous issues on various subjects and sub-topics discussed in the course of these rulings; and hundreds of key points that may not be found elsewhere. We shall have two main indexes: the first, a topic-wise table of contents; and the second, a list of monographs contained within the volume. This volume contains rulings that mainly pertain to matters of purification/cleanliness, until the topic of tayammum; but in the course of discussing the main topic, and explaining the issue, many sub-topics and related issues are mentioned; from ritual purity to prayer, and then subsequent fiqh topics until [the topic of] inheritance; thereafter, issues other than fiqh, like topics on áqīdah, ĥadīth, usūl, geometry, mathematics etc. Therefore, I think it is appropriate to split the first index into two parts:
a) Index of main topics, and according to the order of [fiqh] chapters
b) Index of related and secondary issues mentioned alongside the main topic of the fatwā.

Originally published in twelve volumes of approximately 800 large size pages each, this has been recently republished in thirty volumes 114 of approximately 800 A4 size pages each, totalling 22,000 pages containing 6847 fatāwā, which also contain 206 monographs.115  Another major highlight about the fatāwā is the number of scholars and muftis seeking answers and explanations; Alahazrat was the mufti’s mufti – an authority towards whom leading scholars of the day resorted for answers. According to one statistic, it was found that 1061 questions out of 4494 were asked by 541 scholars and notables.116  Fatāwā collections are usually one or two volumes, and by sheer volume only the Fatāwā al-Hindiyyah comes close to Fatāwā ar-Riđawiyyah; and even that was compiled by more than 50 scholars. As for quality and content, most answers are a few lines or at most one or two pages; but Alahazrat’s fatāwā are voluminous tomes, sometimes running into hundreds of pages with hundreds of references, apart from the aqūl 117  – the insights of the Imām, his own analyses and derivations, which cannot be found anywhere else. In the first volume which has fatāwā only until tayammum, there are 3536 such instances. 118

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Indexing as a science is in itself, a fairly modern phenomenon. The Society of Indexers was established by Norman Knight and inaugurated in 1957 and the first issue of its journal The Indexer was published in 1958. The American Society for Indexing, inspired by the SI, was formed about ten years later in 1968-69.
See http://www.asindexing.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3313.

1. Norman Knight, in his oft-cited article ‘Book Indexing in Great Britain: A Brief History’, from The Indexer, Vol. 6, p17, 1968, mentioning the pioneering efforts of indexers says:
Other excellent examples published during that century include The analytical index to the works of Jeremy Bentham (1843), compiled by J. H. Burton, George Birkbeck Hill’s index to his own edition of Boswell’s Life of Johnson (1887)—the Life (1791) had originally been indexed in characteristic fashion by the biographer himself—and the index to Wheatley’s edition of the Diary of Samuel Pepys (1893-9).

In two of the mentioned works above, indexes for multi-volume books are compiled as a separate volume, Vol.9 in the case of Diary of Samuel Pepys and Vol.6 for Boswell’s Life of Johnson. Alahazrat’s approach to indexing is strikingly similar; even though he was contemporary, one can safely assume that he did not have access to aforementioned works or had any knowledge of such developments. As far as I know, such a detailed topic-wise indexing was practically non-existent in Urdu or Arabic literature at that time, and particularly in books of Fatāwā. Another issue is that an alphabetic index of words in English is much different than a topic index; Alahazrat’s index is therefore, comparable with the second volume of Index to Legal Periodical Literature by Leonard A. Jones, published in 1899, who writes in its preface:
“The general plan of this volume is the same as that of my Index published in 1888, a portion of the Preface to which is now reprinted. In one respect, however, this volume differs, not in plan, but in result, from the former; and that is, it contains many more references to articles relating to Legal Science in general, and many more references to articles relating to Political Science, to Economics, and to Sociology; for in the years since the former Index was compiled, the Bar Associations organized in many States have published a great number of addresses, papers, and reports upon general, rather than technical, subjects connected with the law; and since that time also there have appeared numerous periodical publications devoted to subjects which have an important, if not direct, bearing upon Law and Legislation”.

It should be noted that such pioneers were specialist indexers; and Alahazrat was an author who also made his own indexes. The legal index mentioned above was certainly not the work of one man.

112.the dry ablution. That is, method of ablution when water is not available or cannot be used (for example, for people who are ill, etc.)

113 Kitāb al-Ţahārah

114 Alahazrat’s own passages in Arabic and Persian, as well as citations, have been translated in Urdu and referenced throughout. Immense effort has been put in the making of this edition, though, there is still plenty of room for development. Handwritten Nastaliq by a skilled calligrapher is still preferable to a computer-composed page; vertical movement of ligatures calligraphy is more elegant than wordprocessors until now. With due respect to the copyist, writing is of average quality and regresses in lengthy monographs in this edition. Arabic passages are handwritten though computer composing in Arabic is superior to calligraphy (for running text.) Another issue, is of inline translations written together with the original text which can be mistaken for the author’s own words; whereas, they should appear as footnotes without getting mixed up with the original text.

 115 A topic index and a word index are published in two separate volumes.

116 Mawlānā Khādim Ĥusayn Riđawī in his paper, Alahazrat ba Haysiyat e Marjaá al-Úlamā [Alahazrat, An Authoritative Reference for Scholars] who compiled the list from only nine of the original 12 volumes.

117“I say” which flags the opinion of the Imām.

118 Žafaruddīn Bihārī, Hayat e Alahazrat, 1/326

 

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Kanzu’l Iman

Kanzu’l Īmān fī Tarjamah al-Qur’ān
The Treasure of Faith: An Explanatory Translation1 of the Qur’ān

Arguably, the finest explanatory translation of the Holy Qur’ān in Urdu. The major highlight of which, is the meticulous use of appropriate language, when referring to Allāh táālā and His messengers; and utmost care in the translation of abstruse verses. This is also unique because explanations are weaved in the translation itself and as far as possible remain close to the literal word. Arabic idioms are dexterously translated with similar or equivalent Urdu idioms. Another highlight of the translation is sahl mumtaniý – impossibly simple – which Ghalib has extolled as “the apex of beauty in poetry and the apogee of eloquence.”2  Shaykh Amjad Álī al-Aážamī,3 who initiated the project says that Alahazrat would dictate the entire translation extempore and he would write it down. Critics of his non-verbatim translations accuse him of creating fancy interpretations; whereas, these non-standard translations can be easily and satisfactorily explained by classical commentaries and other books on Qur’ānic sciences.

Researchers have written books explaining the exquisiteness of the work in comparison to other Urdu translations. Taskīn al-Janān fī Maĥāsini Kanz al-Īmān by Shaykh Ábdu’r Razzāq Bathrālwī is noteworthy, in which he analyses and compares translations of about 170 verses and demonstrates the superiority of Kanz. Two other important monographs on this topic are that of Shaykh Madanī Miyāñ al-Kichauchawī4  and Shaykh Akhtar Razā Khān al-Baraylawi.5

 

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Footnotes

1. Someone criticised the usage and said that the Qur’ān cannot be translated and therefore, tarjamah is an inappropriate word to use; and according to him, it should rather be tarjamah máānī al-qur’ān..  But, both Tāj al-Árūs [t-r-j-m] and Şiĥāĥ [r-j-m] say, by definition, tarjamah means, an ‘explanation of its meaning in another language.’

2. Urdu e Muállā, Letter to Ghulam Ghaus.

3. Author of Bahār e Sharīát, a comprehensive reference manual of Ĥanafī Fiqh in Urdu.

4.  Imām Aĥmed Razā Aur Urdu Tarājim e Qur’ān Kā Taqābuli Mutālaáh [A comparative reading of Urdu translations of the Qur’ān by Imām Aĥmed Riđā and by others] Mawlānā Sayyid Muĥammad Madanī al-Ashrafī al-Kichauchawi, Al-Mīzān:Alahazrat Number, 1976.

5. Imām Aĥmed Razā Kā Tarjamah e Qur’ān Ĥaqāyiq ki Raushnī Meiñ [The translation of the Qur’ān by Imām Aĥmed Riđā in the light of facts] by Mawlānā Muftī Akhtar Riđā Khān al-Baraylawī, Al-Mīzān:Alahazrat Number, 1976.  The shaykh is a great-grandson of Alahazrat.

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v2-n24 mustafa khayru’l wara ho

muşţafā khayru’l warā ho  ::  sarwar e har do sarā ho

apney ach’choñ kā taşadduq  ::  hum badoñ ko bhi nibāho

kis ke phir ho kar raheñ hum  ::  gar tumhīñ hum ko na chāho

bad hañseñ tum un ki khāţir  ::  rāt bhar ro-o-karāho

bad kareñ har dam burāyī  ::  tum kaho un kā bhalā ho

hum wahī nā shustā rū haiñ  ::  tum wahī baĥr e áţā ho

hum wahī shāyān e radd haiñ  ::  tum wahī shān e sakhā ho

hum wahī bey-sharm o bad haiñ  ::  tum wahī kān e ĥayā ho

hum wahī nañg e jafā haiN  ::  tum wahī jān e wafā ho

hum wahī qābil sazā ke  ::  tum wahī raĥm e khudā ho

charkh badley dahr badley  ::  tum badalney se warā ho

ab hameñ ho sahw hāshā  ::  aysi bhuloñ se judā ho

úmr bhar to yād rakhā  ::  waqt par kyā bhūlnā ho

waqt e paydāyish na bhūley  ::  kayfa yansa? kyuñ qazā ho?

ye bhi mawlā árz karduñ  ::  bhūl agar jaaO to kya ho?

woh ho jo tum par girāñ hai  ::  woh ho jo hargiz na chaho

woh ho jis ka nām letey  ::  dushmanoñ kā dil burā ho

woh ho jis ke radd ki khāţir  ::  rāt din waqf e duáā ho

mar miTeñ barbād bandey  ::  khāna ābād aag kā ho

shād ho iblīs e malúūñ  ::  gham kisey us qahr kā ho

tum ko ho wallāh tum ko!  ::  jān o dil tum par fidā ho

tum ko gham sey ĥaqq bachāye  ::  gham ádū ko jāñ guzā ho

tum ko gham sey kyā táalluq  ::  beykasoñ key ghamzidā ho

ĥaqq durūdeñ tum pey bheyje  ::  tum mudām us ko sarāho

woh áţā dey tum áţā lo  ::  woh wahi chāhey jo chāho

bar tu uu pāshad, tu bar mā  ::  tā abad yeh silsilah ho

kyun razā mushkil sey Dariye  ::  jab nabiy mushkil kushā ho

muşţafā khayru’l warā ho sarwar e har do sarā ho Muşţafā! you are the best of creation and a benefactor in both worlds

apney ach’choñ kā taşadduq hum badoñ ko bhi nibāho for the sake of your good ones, please tolerate us, the bad ones

kis ke phir ho kar raheñ hum gar tumhīñ hum ko na chāho whom will we then belong to – if you don’t own us – and not care for us

bad hañseñ tum un ki khāţir rāt bhar ro-o-karāho the sinful laugh (heedlessly) – but you, for them – weep and sob the whole night

bad kareñ har dam burāyī tum kaho un kā bhalā ho the depraved, unrighteous commit crimes but you say: ‘may good and fortune befall them’

hum wahī nā shustā rū haiñ tum wahī baĥr e áţā ho we are the ones with ugly faces and you are the sea of kindness

hum wahī shāyān e radd haiñ tum wahī shān e sakhā ho we are worthless, fit to be discarded; and you are the epitome of grace

hum wahī bey-sharm o bad haiñ tum wahī kān e ĥayā ho we are the shameless, the evil and you are the abundance of modesty; a treasury of virtue

hum wahī nañg e jafā haiN tum wahī jān e wafā ho we are such that treachery is ashamed of us and you are the very life of faith, faithfulness

hum wahī qābil sazā ke tum wahī raĥm e khudā ho we are worthy of nothing but punishment and you are the very mercy of Allah

charkh badley dahr badley tum badalney se warā ho the heavens may change; and times may change but you are vouchsafed from changing

ab hameñ ho sahw hāshā aysi bhuloñ se judā ho that you may forget us? Allāh forbid! for you are free from such forgetfulness

úmr bhar to yād rakhā waqt par kyā bhūlnā ho you have remembered all your life how will you forget us at that dire hour?

waqt e paydāyish na bhūley kayfa yansa? kyuñ qazā ho? you did not forget us at the time of your blessed birth how can you ever forget us? how can we be passed over?

ye bhi mawlā árz karduñ bhūl agar jaaO to kya ho? allow me to say my lord, this as well what will happen if you forget us:

woh ho jo tum par girāñ hai woh ho jo hargiz na chaho that will happen, which is distressing to you and that, which you don’t wish to happen

woh ho jis ka nām letey dushmanoñ kā dil burā ho that will happen, whose name when uttered even an enemy’s heart will be agonized

woh ho jis ke radd ki khāţir rāt din waqf e duáā ho and that will happen, to ward off which, night and day were spent in prayer

mar miTeñ barbād bandey khāna ābād aag kā ho ruined slaves will die and perish and hell will be all filled up

shād ho iblīs e malúūñ gham kisey us qahr kā ho the accursed satan will be gleeful (on account of so many going to hell) and who will be aggrieved of this misery?

tum ko ho wallāh tum ko! jān o dil tum par fidā ho by Allāh! you will be pained, and you will grieve my life and my heart be sacrificed upon thee

tum ko gham sey ĥaqq bachāye gham ádū ko jāñ guzā ho may Allāh táālā protect you from sorrow may sorrow find place in the bosoms of (your) enemies

tum ko gham sey kyā táalluq beykasoñ key ghamzidā ho what has sorrow to do with thee? you are the remover of sorrows, the comfort of the grieving

ĥaqq durūdeñ tum pey bheyje tum mudām us ko sarāho Allāh táālā sends salawāt (blessings) upon thee; and you praise Him always

woh áţā dey tum áţā lo woh wahi chāhey jo chāho He gives bounty to thee, and you take it from Him and Allah ta’ala wishes and accepts, fulfills your wishes

bar tu uu pāshad; tu bar mā tā abad yeh silsilah ho He has heaped His bounties upon thee; and you, upon me and may this be for eternity

kyun razā mushkil sey Dariye jab nabiy mushkil kushā ho o raza! why fear hardship? when your master is the one who eliminates hardship.

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v1-n67 muzdah baad ay aasiyo

muzhdah bād ay áāsiyO, shāfiý shah-e-abrār hai

tahniyat ay mujrimO! zāt e khudā Ghaffār hai

 

ársh sā farsh-e-zamīN hai, farsh-e-pā ársh-e-barīN

kyā nirāli ţarz kī nām-e-khudā raftār hai

 

chānd shakh ho peyD boleN jānwar sajdey kareN

bārakAllāh marjiý e áālam yahī sarkār hai

 

jin ko sū-ey āsmāN phaylā key jal thal bhar diye

şadqah un hāthoN ka pyārey hum ko bhi darkār hai

 

lab zulāl e chashmah e kun meiN gundhey waqt e khamīr

murdey zindah karnah ay jaaN tum ko kyā dushwār hai

 

gorey gorey paauN chamkā do khudā key wāstey

nūr kā taDkā ho pyārey gor ki shab tār hai

 

terey hi dāman pey har áāsi ki paDti hai nazar

eyk jān e bey khata par do jahāN kā bār hai

 

josh e ţūfāN baĥr e bey pāyāN hawā nā sāzgār

nuĥ key mawlā karam kar dey to beyDa pār hai

 

raĥmatu’l li’l áālamīN terī duhāyī dab gayā

ab to maulā bey tarah sar par gunah kā bār hai

 

ĥayrateN haiN āyīnah dār e wafūr e wasf e gul

un key bulbul kī khamoshi bhi lab e iz’hār hai

 

gūnj gūnj uThey haiN naghmāt e razā sey būstāN

kyuN na ho kis phūl ki mid’ĥat meiN wā minqār hai

1. Glad tidings be to you O sinners; your intercessor is the prince of righteous

2. Congratulations! the Lord Almighty is known as Al-Ghaffār, the Forgiver.

 

3. The earth under his feet is like the Exalted Throne; and the sole of his foot is above the Throne

4. By Allāh! what a graceful walk thou possess!

 

5. The moon was split; trees spoke and animals prostrate

6. Allāh’s Blessings upon him; he is the refuge, a sanctuary for the world.

 

7. He spread them towards the heaven and filled the earth with rain

8. O beloved! We too need the alms given from those blessed hands.

9. Your lips have been raised by the pure spring of ‘kun

10. My beloved! It is not difficult for you to raise the dead.

 

11. Let those fair and radiant feet shine upon us, for the sake of Allāh

12. O beloved, Show us a ray of light; the grave is pitch-dark.

 

13. Every sinner looks upon you for deliverance

14. The burden of both worlds rests upon a single sinless life!

 

15. The storm rages, the sea is in tumult as it swells and the wind is not helpful;

16. Yet, we shall survive if the Master of Nuĥ has mercy

 

17. O, the Mercy for the universe, help! I am crushed [under the weight]

18. My Lord! A huge load of sins rests upon my head like none other

 

19. Those who behold the attributes of this flower are awestruck, perplexed;

20. His nightingale is speechless, and its state [of being spellbound] is itself an eloquent expression.

 

21. The melodies of Raza echo resoundingly in the gardens

22. And why not? Does he not sing the praises of the majestic flower?

1. Glad tidings be to you O sinners; your intercessor is the prince of righteous

2. Congratulations! the Lord Almighty is Al-Ghaffār, the Forgiver

muzhdah: glad tidings. áāşī: sinner bār: righteous, pious, and its plural is abrār. shah-e-abrār is prince of the righteous. tahniyat: congratulations

The Imām raĥimahullāh contrasts it thus: Sinners should be glad with the hope of intercession by the Prince of Righteous and in the presence of the Oft-Forgiving.

3. The earth under his feet is like the Exalted Throne; and the sole of his foot is above the Throne

4. By Allāh! what a graceful walk thou possess!

The first line is an allusion to the Ascension when RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam went past the Throne and hence, the earth under his feet is as precious as the Throne.

And the second line should actually be: ‘kyā nirālī tarz ki – Allāh! – raftār hai’ Alahazrat has modified it to fit the meter by replacing the name itself with a pointer instead: ‘nām-e-khudā’ as an interjection.

5. the moon was split; trees spoke and animals prostrate

6. Allāh’s Blessings upon him; he is the refuge, a sanctuary for the world

marjiý: a place of safety, a haven, a sanctuary, refuge;

The first line mentions miracles of the Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam which are used to draw the conclusion in the next line: ‘He is the refuge towards whom the world turns.’ Naturally, this is granted by Allāh táālā to His beloved Prophet.

marjiý also means ‘authority’ or ‘source.’ marjiý al-úlamā: an authority acknowledged by scholars as a reference and a source as we describe Alahazrat.

A similar verse in the Burdah:

jā’at li dáwatihi’l ashjāru sājidatan

tamshī ilayhi álā sāqin bilā qadamī

Trees came to him prostrate, upon his beckoning

Walking towards him on shins, not feet

And verses by Ibn Abidin:

wa muújizātin tawālat qabla mabáthihi

fa kāna yubşiruhā bil áyni kulla ámī

fađ đabbu kallamahū, wa’l jadh’ú ĥanna lahū

wal badru shaqqa lahū min bahīri’l ĥukami

wa’sh shamsu qad waqafat min baádi mā gharabat

was saĥbu qad wakafat lammā da’áā bi famī

His miracles manifest, long ere he was sent

So obvious they were, to blind they were cogent.

A lizard spake to him, for him the wood hath wept;

The moon hath split in two – on his command accept.

The sun had set, but yet: the day he did restore

A pray’r from his lips, and clouds began to pour.

7. He spread them towards the heavens and filled the earth with rain

8. O beloved! We too need the alms given from those blessed hands

In ĥadīth, there is a story about a companion who complained to RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam about famine and he şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam was sitting on the pulpit. He raised his hands and prayed for rain and before his raised hands came down, the skies began to pour. It poured so much that after a while people complained of flood.

Alahazrat says, when RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam raises his hands towards the heavens, we are flooded with blessings. We are in dire need for you to raise those beautiful hands and give us alms.

9. Your lips have been raised by the pure spring of ‘kun’

10. My beloved! It is not difficult for you to raise the dead

zulāl: pure water chashma-e-kun: ‘the spring of kun.’ Allāh táālā created the world with the word kun or ‘Be.’ That is His awesome Power. Alahazrat says that the lips of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam were granted a ray, a reflection from the Awesome Power of the Word ‘kun’; and therefore, it is not difficult for you to breathe life in the dead [like sayyidunā Ýīsā álayhi’s salām would say: ‘I give life by Allāh’s leave’].

I have used ‘raise’ in the first line to mean ‘knead’, because that is how the Imām described it. ‘When you were created’ is described as an Urdu/Arabic idiom: ‘when you were kneaded from clay and then raised.’

‘I was a Prophet when Adam was still as kneaded clay.’ [see Maqāşid al-Ĥasanah, no.837]

11. Let those fair and radiant feet shine upon us, for the sake of Allāh

12. O beloved, Show us a ray of light; the grave is pitch-dark

The first line mentions his fair and pure white feet and contrasts with the pitch-black darkness mentioned in the next line. And, gorey meaning ‘white’ is used with gor meaning grave for alliteration.

13. Every sinner looks upon you for deliverance

14. The burden of both worlds rests upon a single sinless life!

In Urdu/Persian dāman or ‘mantle’ is idiomatically used to indicate ‘a place of refuge.’ Like a loving mother hides her scared child in her mantle. He is sinless – jaan-e-beykhaţā; and sinners look beseechingly upon him for intercession. Verily, the burden of both worlds rest on his lone sinless shoulders – because even prophets have turned us away to find another intercessor and none has accepted except him.

15. The storm rages, the sea is in tumult as it swells and the wind is not helpful;

16. Yet, we shall survive if the Master of Nuĥ has mercy

Nuĥ álayhi’s salām was delivered along with his followers from a raging storm and flood; and RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam is the master of Nuĥ álā nabiyyinā wa álayhi’s şalātu wa’s salām and surely, his followers will be delivered from any storm!

josh e ţūfān: the rage of the storm baĥr e bey pāyāN : unfathomable sea hawā nā sāzgār: unhelpful winds

17. O, the Mercy for the universe, help! I am crushed [under the weight]

18. My Lord! A huge load of sins rests upon my head like none other

RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam is the Mercy for the universe. And Allāh táālā asks us not to despair of His Mercy. He tells us to come to this Mercy to gain mercy – and so we come to him with this plea.

19. Those who behold the attributes of this flower are awestruck, perplexed –

20. The silence of his nightingale is also an eloquent expression

The nightingale is speechless with wonder to sing his praise; because even those who are more worthy and described his attributes are at a loss of words to describe him.

āyīnah dār: one who describes attributes; wafūr: in plenty waşf-e-gul: the attributes of The Flower.

Thus, it means: ‘those who describe the attributes of The Flower in plenty’ or ‘those who describe the many attributes of The Flower’

This is an indication towards the famous ĥadīth of Sayyiduna Álī rađiyAllāhu ánhu describing the attributes [shamayil] of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam and he said: ‘Whoever chanced to look upon him suddenly was awestruck..’ [Tirmidhi 3638, Shamayil,7.] And the general tone of description in that ĥadīth, where an eloquent man as Mawlā Álī rađiyAllāhu ánhu says “..neither this, nor that..” as if he is searching for apt words to describe him; as if he is not satisfied with the words he is using.

ĥayrāN huN merey shāh maiN kyā kyā kahūN tujhe?

I am perplexed my Lord! What all shall I call you?

21. The melodies of Raza echo resoundingly in the gardens

22. And why not? Does he not sing the praises of the majestic flower?

mid’ĥat: praise minqār: beak, wā: open; thus, wā minqār means: [the nightingale] parts its beak in his praise; in other words, ‘sings his praise’.

The last verse is a question for emphasis and the Imām says, ‘After all, whose praise does the nightingale sing? It is the most precious flower and naturally, such praise will echo in gardens.’

This is like the beautiful Arabic verse:

mā in mada’ĥtu muĥammadan bi maqālatī

[wa] lākin mada’ĥtu maqālatī bi muĥammadī

I have not praised Muĥammad şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam in my verse;

Rather, my verse has become praiseworthy because of Muĥammad’s mention şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam

 

 

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scholar by self-study

Question:1

What is the ruling concerning a person who has read some ordinary books of Urdu and Persian used in preliminary classes and who has not attended any Islamic school nor obtained certificates from scholars: yet he claims that he is a mufti and translates verses of the Qur’ān and ĥadīth and makes it known to the public that he is a scholar (maulvi).

a) Is it allowed to accept the ruling or fatwa or saying of such a person?

b) Should one act upon his instruction/fatwa or not?

c) What is the ruling about another person who does not accept the aforementioned person’s ruling and instructions.

 

Answer:

Certificate [or authorization] is inconsequential. Many a certificate holder is simply clueless and they are not even eligible to be the students of some [knowledgeable] folk who do not have any certificates.  The most important thing is to have knowledge.  The skill in issuing rulings is not perfected by mere book-learning.  Unless one spends a lengthy time as an intern under an experienced doctor, one does not become a proficient doctor.2

It has been observed of companions of expert muftis who have not attended formal classes nor have completed any course, but yet by virtue of being in the service of scholars and having spent time researching  topics,3 are far superior to many certificate holders who have completed [formal] courses; rather, such people are even superior to many teachers and nominal muftis.

[However,]regarding the aforementioned person: If he is himself indeed knowledgeable, either by self-study or is knowledgeable on account of being in the company of excellent scholars and has plenty of knowledge; and whatever he says is mostly correct [upon corroboration] and is right, more often than he is wrong, then, there is no problem in this [speaking on matters of knowledge or accepting his opinion].

However, if he does not have knowledge by either self-study or company of scholars, but still merely looks up books of Urdu and Persian and narrates legal rulings; and translates Qur’ān and ĥadīth by himself,4 then such an act is an enormity,5 and a big sin.  It is not permissible to act upon such a person’s legal edicts [fatwa] nor is it permissible to listen to his sermons explaining Qur’ān and ĥadīth.

It is mentioned in the ĥadīth that RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam has said: One who is audacious or reckless in issuing legal edicts is fearless about hellfire.

And he has also said şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam: One who explains the Qur’ān according to his own understanding, is in the wrong even if he has uttered the correct opinion [by coincidence or chance].

We seek Allāh’s refuge; and Allāh táālā knows best.


Footnotes:

1. Query from Qazi Tola, Kohna City, 17-Dhu’l Qa’adah-1322

2. Doctor in the translation is used to mean both : a physician (contemporary) and a scholar (archaic).  That is, similar to an internship, one has to spend time in the supervision of an expert mufti to become a mufti.

3.masāyil

4. ‘by himself’ means to translate with a dictionary and explain as the meaning occurs to him; as opposed to someone who uses the tafsīr and sharĥ of senior and widely-accepted authorities and reliable opinions in his translation/explanation.

5. ĥarām

Fatawa Ridawiyyah #316, Volume 23, Pgs 683-684

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on tajwid – 2

Question:1
Please describe, where in the books of fiqh is it written, that it is farđ áyn2  to recite the Qur’ān with (minimum) tajwīd such that every letter is pronounced distinctly.  If it is indeed true, then in which book is it present and in which place in that book.  If you can recall a hadith at the moment in this regard, please include it in your answer.


Answer:
It is clearly written in all [relevant] books that if a letter is replaced with another in recitation, it invalidates prayer, if:

– it is due to inability, according to the correct and relied upon opinion (madh'hab)

– it is by mistake and the meaning is distorted, according to our imams

– it is by mistake and if such a word is not found in the Qur'an, according to Imam Abu Yusuf

It is impossible to avoid mistakes unless one learns it (from a qualified reciter.)  It is farđ áyn to protect oneself from such things that cause one’s prayer to be invalid.  Allāh táālā has said: ‘do not cause your deeds to be invalidated.3

In Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah it is written:

idh wājibun álayhimu muĥattamu
qabla al-shurūýi awwalan an yálamu
makhārij al-ĥurūfi wa’s şifāti
li yanţiqū bi afşaĥi’l lughāti
4

It is obligatory and essential
Before starting to recite the Qur’ān to know
The articulation of letters and their attributes
So that one can properly pronounce the most eloquent of all languages

Allāh táālā knows best.


Footnotes:

1. Query by Muhammad Miyan of Bareilly

2. Obligatory for everybody

3. Sūrah Muĥammad, v.33

4. In other version li-yalfižū instead of li-yanţiqū

Fatāwā ar-Riđawiyyah No.506 / Vol.6, Pg.339

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