ulum al-qur’an

on tajwid – 2

Please describe, where in the books of fiqh is it written, that it is farđ áyn2  to recite the Qur’ān with (minimum) tajwīd such that every letter is pronounced distinctly.  If it is indeed true, then in which book is it present and in which place in that book.  If you can recall a hadith at the moment in this regard, please include it in your answer.

It is clearly written in all [relevant] books that if a letter is replaced with another in recitation, it invalidates prayer, if:

– it is due to inability, according to the correct and relied upon opinion (madh'hab)

– it is by mistake and the meaning is distorted, according to our imams

– it is by mistake and if such a word is not found in the Qur'an, according to Imam Abu Yusuf

It is impossible to avoid mistakes unless one learns it (from a qualified reciter.)  It is farđ áyn to protect oneself from such things that cause one’s prayer to be invalid.  Allāh táālā has said: ‘do not cause your deeds to be invalidated.3

In Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah it is written:

idh wājibun álayhimu muĥattamu
qabla al-shurūýi awwalan an yálamu
makhārij al-ĥurūfi wa’s şifāti
li yanţiqū bi afşaĥi’l lughāti

It is obligatory and essential
Before starting to recite the Qur’ān to know
The articulation of letters and their attributes
So that one can properly pronounce the most eloquent of all languages

Allāh táālā knows best.


1. Query by Muhammad Miyan of Bareilly

2. Obligatory for everybody

3. Sūrah Muĥammad, v.33

4. In other version li-yalfižū instead of li-yanţiqū

Fatāwā ar-Riđawiyyah No.506 / Vol.6, Pg.339

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on tajwid – 1


Zayd says the following:

“It is necessary to learn the makharij2 and it is obligatory3 to pronounce [the Qur’ān in recitation] properly.  However, if one cannot pronounce properly in spite of trying very hard, [to learn] he/she will then have a valid excuse.  If a person does not know about the makhraj absolutely or that he knows about them, but he does not pronounce accordingly, then,  his namaz/salat is invalid.

If most Muslims omit an obligatory action or commit a forbidden action, it doesn't make it permissible [to omit or commit] just because many of them have omitted or committed it.

First of all, [many] Muslims do not pray at all.  And those who pray are not regular in their prayer.  99% or approximately as many do not abstain from backbiting.”

Are Zayd’s aforementioned comments correct?


All of Zayd's comments above are correct except the words: “şalāt is invalid if makharij are not known.” It is not necessary to know about the makharij; it is only necessary to pronounce the letters properly.  There are many people who cannot describe the makharij but they can recite properly and they have learnt by only hearing (from reciters) and practicing the same.  Even an illiterate Urdu speaker can pronounce the letters of his language correctly but cannot describe the makhraj.

Allāh táālā knows best.


1. Query sent by Amjad Álī Khān by way of Maulavi Shafīý Aĥmed, from Khanuda Post, Khana Khas, Hoshiarpur District; 12th Jumādā al-Akhīrah 1336AH.

2. makhraj; pl. makhārij: the place from where a letter is uttered.

3. It is obligatory to learn it such that at least prayer is valid.

Fatāwā  ar-Riđawiyyah, No. 505, Vol.6, Pg.339

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